Practice Quiz 3

1. Malignant environmental circumstances may continue to control people, because
    a. people are inherently masochists
    b. they may bring immediate positive consequences
    c. there is no way to arrange environmental circumstances to produce desired consequences
    d. malignant consequences are more powerful than positive ones

2. Mentalism is (Skinner)
    a. the ancient notion "mind over matter"
    b. the belief that thought and feelings determine behavior, not external consequences
    c. the belief that, through the will, one can ultimately and absolutely control behavior
    d. Jung's idea that something like archetypes ultimately determine behavior

3. Shaping is
    a. a process by which natural variability in behavior is exploited so that a new behavior is acquired by
        reinforcing successive approximation to it
    b. a process by which the environment of an animal is resculptured to fit the genetic propensities of the
        animal (e.g., panel is presented to a pigeon rather than a lever)
    c. restructuring a stimulus until it is a useful reinforcer
    d. restructuring the experimental set-up until the conditions for successful conditioning prevail

4. About punishment, Skinner believed
    a. it is the most effective way to control behavior
    b. while it is the most effective way to control behavior, its use is unethical
    c. it only has temporary effects
    d. it is counterproductive: resistance to coercion causes organisms to respond at higher rates in the
        presence of punishment

5. If one is angry because someone has aggressed against him or her, how will one's subsequent aggression
    against a third party affect future aggressiveness?
    a. it will have no effect on future aggression
    b. it will "blow off some steam" making future aggression less likely
    c. it will suppress future aggression because of fear of retaliation
    d. it will follows the adage "aggression begets aggression": aggression gives rise to more aggression

6. Which of the following must be true of the threat of punishment is to deter future aggression?
    a. the occurrence of the punishment must be of uncertain likelihood
    b. the threatened potential aggressor must be very angry
    c. the potential aggressor who is threatened must have much to gain from future aggression
    d. the person who is threatened must know that any future aggression will be followed immediately by punishment

7. Skinner reared his daughter in a
    a. typical nursery by atypical procedures
    b. in a box featuring temperature and humidity control
    c. in an apparatus not unlike a Skinner box in terms of reinforcement delivery
    d. in a special, contingency controlled, outdoor area

8. What discovery did Skinner make that caused him to guard his life lest the important find be lost?
    a. what is now called classical conditioning
    b. the empirical law of effect
    c. the effects of aversive stimuli
    d. the extinction graph

9. Regarding Skinner's alleged opposition to theory
    a. he actually looked forward to a behavioral theory based on careful observation
    b. he opposed all theory because he felt all theories would have mentalistic elements
    c. his opposition to all theory was real
    d. he actually softened near the end of his life and began supporting a bit of mentalism in behaviorism

10. How did Rudy respond to the physical punishment he received?
    a. he became very submissive
    b. he was controlling and aggressive toward his sister
    c. he cried excessively
    d. he cowered in a corner while assuming a fetal position

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