1. About Freud's emphasis on childhood trauma, Erikson declared, "If
everything 'goes back' into childhood, then
a. it will be nearly impossible to trace"
b. everything is someone else's fault"
c. why even consider the present?"
d. the future has no meaning"
2. During Erikson's early childhood stage
a. the child resolves the trust issue
b. the child becomes able to exercise its will
c. still has trouble grasping things
d. can now do more for itself that others can do for it
3. Initiative is
a. the ability to restrain pursuits of desires and urges
b. acting on one's desires, urges, and potentials
c. taking charge of one's life at the expense of possible alienation of the mothering one
d. advancing cognitively to the point of making rational judgments about one's life
4. Competence, the strength of Erikson's school age is
a. overcoming inherent inferiority
b. striving for superiority through compensation for weaknesses
c. the free exercise of dexterity and intelligence in the completion of serious tasks
d. the humility to recognize one's weaknesses and deficiencies and to address them
5. Traditionally, parents have been the standard used by their children
to develop their identities. Why is that less so today?
a. parents are, in many cases, not available enough to have impact on their children
b. urban living has made parents indifferent to childrearing
c. drugs have made children unmanageable
d. parents and their children are not able to communicate any more
6. The poles of the dilemma of old age are
a. trust versus distrust
b. intimacy versus isolation
c. integrity versus despair
d. identity versus identity confusion
7. What proportion of Levinson's sample suffered the mid-life crisis?
a. nearly 100%
8. All except one of the following are among the outcomes of Ochse's
and Plug's (1986) investigations of poles associated with Erikson's stages.
Which was NOT among their outcomes?
a. the more the positive poles were represented in subjects, the higher their senses of well-being
b. black and white South African subjects showed almost identical responses
c. intercorrelations among poles tended to be high regardless of whether subjects had yet passed crises
d. intimacy versus isolation and generativity versus stagnation emerged from factor analysis
9. A child who suffers from "shame and doubt" is likely to be
a. mean and stubborn
b. tentative and self-effacing
c. reserved and bombastic (manic-depressive like)
d. spiritual and lofty
10. Which is a manifestation of "generativity"?
a. the "advice" that middle aged people offer younger people
b. the continual talk about "my generation" that middle-aged people are apt to display
c. the work on the part of middle-aged people to generate more work for younger peopl
d. middle aged people's love of generating dilemmas for young people to resolve