Practice Quiz 2

1. In social cognitive theory
    a. people function as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within a network of
        reciprocally interacting influences

    b. the balance and counterbalance of internal and external forces operate to influence both the emotional
        and cognitive processes as the individual attempts to adapt to her or his environment
    c. the order of importance of factors is indicated in the label: social first, cognition second
    d. human functioning is emphasized because "cognition" precludes the consideration of animal functioning

2. "Proxy agency" means:
    a. the same thing as "collective agency"
    b. an approximation to agency
    c. an agent who is proximal to oneself
    d. enlisting others to help control circumstances affecting one's life

3. In "symbolic modeling,"
    a. an object comes to symbolize a model
    b. verbal and pictorial means are used to convey information necessary for the adoption of behavior
    c. a behavior is presented in symbolic form instead of the usual concrete form
    d. models symbolize other models

4. Participant modeling
    a. is participating in research as a model
    b. is when a person with low self-efficacy imitates a model's efficacious behavior
    c. is when several models perform the same behavior for a single observer
    d. is when an observer takes on the role of model and models a behavior for the benefit of the person who was
        previously the model

5. How do we know that intrinsic motivation is at work?
    a. behavior is persistent in the absence of obvious external rewards
    b. one must observe the persistence of a behavior in the absence of external rewards and behavioral alternatives
    c. one must observe that the strength of the behavior grows as a function of the amount of time devoted to the behavior
    d. the behavior must be unusual and unique to the performer

6. Defensive behavior (Bandura) is difficult to change because
    a. it has such a long reinforcement history
    b. it is usually such ingrained behavior
    c. it allows avoidance of unpleasant events in the future
    d. it ensures that unpleasant feelings from the past will not return

7. Which of the following is an advantageous comparison?
    a. comparing oneself to people of great wealth
    b. comparing what certain people do to what other people do
    c. comparing oneself to similar others in the hope that one does a little bit better than them
    d. excusing deplorable behavior by declaring that others do it also

8. All except one of the following are social cognitive theory concepts to help explain moral functioning.
    Which is NOT one of those concepts?
    a. diffusion of responsibility
    b. superficial expediency
    c. moral justification
    d. gradualistic moral disengagement

9. What possible short-coming of social cognitive theory is one of its great virtues?
    a. the small number of concepts that constitute it
    b. the relatively small amount of work that has been done to support it: it is fertile ground for new researchers
    c. its ability to explain outcomes after the fact has allowed it to explain more than other theories
    d. its great breadth

10. An incentive is
    a. food presented after "proper behavior" has been performed
    b. money paid following work performed
    c. praise following a kind deed
    d. an offer of money to be paid after a subsequent favor has been performed

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