Learning Objectives

Exam Unit 2

When you have satisfactorily completed your study of the material for this exam unit, you should be able to do the following things.  If you can do all of these things, you should be in good shape for the exam.  If you cannot, then more study is called for.  Otherwise, you can expect to have difficulties with the exam.


Chapter 7 —  Learning

  1.  Explain the terminology and the process of classical conditioning.
  2.  Discuss the factors necessary for the acquisition of classical conditioning.
  3.  Identify the following principles of classical conditioning: higher-order conditioning, stimulus generalization, stimulus discrimination, extinction and spontaneous recovery.
  4.  Discuss the conditioning of taste aversion and its applications to real-world situations.
  5.  Describe the general conditioning of phobias, and discuss the explanations for human phobias regarding snakes and heights.
  6.  Explain both the law of effect and operant conditioning.
  7.  Explain the concept of reinforcement.
  8. Distinguish between the following pairs: primary and secondary reinforcement, and positive and negative reinforcement.
  9.  Identify and give examples of the Premack principle.
10. Distinguish among the following schedules of reinforcement: continuous, fixed-ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval and variable interval.
11. Define and give examples of shaping.
12. Define punishment, identify guidelines for using punishment, and discuss the disadvantages of punishment.
13. Identify the following: instinctive drift, latent learning, and learned helplessness.
14. Define observational learning and identify the factors necessary for observational learning to take place.
15. Discuss the research suggesting children can learn aggressive behavior through the process of observation.
16. Describe ways in which positive social modeling can counteract aggressive models.

Chapter 8  —  Memory

  1.  Define memory and discuss the basic components of the information-processing model.
  2.  Distinguish among the following three memory systems: long-term memory, short-term memory and sensory memory.
  3.  Describe the fleeting nature of sensory memory.
  4.  Explain why short-term memory is referred to as “working memory”.
  5.  Describe the following: encoding, the storage capacity of short-term memory, and maintenance rehearsal. 
  6.  Identify elaborative rehearsal and distinguish between shallow and deep processing.
  7.  Distinguish among episodic, semantic and procedural memory.
  8.  Contrast the following two ways in which knowledge is organized in long-term memory: semantic networks and schemas.
  9.  Describe the parallel-distributed processing models of memory.
10. Distinguish between explicit memory and implicit memory.
11. Identify retrieval cues and describe how they can help trigger the recall of stored memories.
12. Discuss the research evidence for the reconstructive nature of memory.
13. Distinguish between retroactive and proactive interference.
14. Distinguish between suppression and repression.
15. Describe the results of research regarding long-term potentiation as the neural basis of memory.
16. Discuss the search for specific brain regions involved in the memory process.
17. Distinguish between anterograde and retrograde amnesia.

Chapter 10  —  Intelligence

  1.  Define intelligence.
  2.  Describe the efforts of Galton and Binet to measure intelligence.
  3.  Discuss the impact of Goddard and the eugenics movement on IQ testing in the U.S.
  4.  Distinguish between aptitude tests and achievement tests.
  5.  Describe the functions of the spinal cord.
  6.  Distinguish among the Stanford-Binet, the Wechsler and group-administered intelligence tests.
  7.  Distinguish among the following characteristics of psychological tests: standardization, reliability, and validity.
  8.  Contrast the theories of intelligence proposed by Spearman and Thurstone.
  9.  Explain Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.
10.  Explain the components of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence.
11.  Define emotional intelligence and explain its importance in our emotional and social lives.
12.  Discuss the evidence for differences in intelligence due to brain anatomy and brain functioning.
13.  Describe the efforts to determine the stability of intelligence.
14.  Distinguish between organic and non-organic causes of mental retardation.
15.  Identify mainstreaming and discuss the controversies surrounding this approach.
16.  Discuss the approaches taken to educate mentally gifted children and describe the results of the Terman study.
17.  Describe the efforts of researchers to understand hereditary and environmental influences on intelligence.
18. Discuss the results of research on gender and racial differences in IQ scores.
19. Explain the controversies generated by the publication of The Bell Curve.
20. Distinguish between within-group differences and between-group differences.
21. Explain the cultural and psychological factors that may help to explain group differences in IQ scores.