Learning Objectives

Exam Unit 1

When you have satisfactorily completed your study of the material for this exam unit, you should be able to do the following things.  If you can do all of these things, you should be in good shape for the exam.  If you cannot, then more study is called for.  Otherwise, you can expect to have difficulties with the exam.


Chapter 1    Introduction to Psychology

  1.  Define psychology and distinguish between psychology and psychiatry.
  2.  Distinguish between determinism and free will.
  3.  Identify the following early psychologists and discuss their contributions to psychology: Wilhelm Wundt, William James, Sigmund Freud, John Watson, and Max Wertheimer.
  4.  Identify some of the early day women and ethnic minorities in psychology and describe their challenges and accomplishments.
  5.  Identify and describe the following contemporary perspectives: psychoanalytic, behavioristic, humanistic, cognitive, and biological.
  6.  Distinguish between the evolutionary and the sociocultural perspectives.
  7.  Describe the kinds of work done by psychologists who specialize in the major subfields of psychology and contrast the subfields in psychology that emphasize research versus those emphasizing application.

Chapter 2    The Vehicle for Psychological Discovery

  1.  Distinguish among the following examples of "naïve" psychology: primacy effect, implicit personality theory and the hindsight bias.
  2.  Distinguish between a sample and a population.
  3.  Discuss the importance of engaging in critical thinking.
  4.  Describe each of the following steps in conducting research: selecting a topic and reviewing past research, theory and hypothesis development, selecting a scientific method and obtaining approval, and data collection, analysis and reporting results.
  5.  Distinguish among the following types of observational research: naturalistic observation, participant observation, and case study.
  6.  Explain the importance of correlational research.
  7.  Discuss the correlation coefficient and explain why correlation cannot definitively determine the cause of the relationship between two variables.
  8.  Explain how experimental research determines cause and effect relationships.
  9.  Distinguish between the independent variable and the dependent variable, and between the experimental condition and the control condition.

Chapter 3    Biological Bases of Behavior

  1.  Identify the structural components of a neuron.
  2.  Distinguish between the resting potential and the action potential of a neuron.
  3.  Describe the process by which neurons communicate with each other.
  4.  Discuss the structures and functions of the peripheral nervous system.
  5.  Describe the functions of the spinal cord.
  6.  Identify the glands and hormones of the endocrine system and describe their effects on behavior.
  7.  Identify and describe modern techniques that allow researchers to peer into the living brain.
  8.  Identify and describe the three major regions of the brain.
  9.  Explain why the cerebrum is the crowning achievement of human evolution.
10.  Identify the lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe their roles in performing various tasks.
11.  Explain cerebral lateralization and describe the results of research on split-brain patients.
12.  Describe the results of research regarding sex differences and cultural differences in cerebral lateralization.
13.  Describe the brain's ability to alter its own neural connections.
14.  Distinguish between the approaches known as mind-body dualism and monism.
15.  Distinguish between phenotype and genotype.
16.  Explain the relationship between genes, chromosomes, DNA and sex chromosomes.
17.  Identify and describe the field of behavior genetics.